Afrilu 11, 2020

Fasaha uku na zamani waɗanda suka cancanci a yi la'akari da su a cikin takaddar

Duniyar kimiyya a fadake take. Ana yin sabbin abubuwan bincike kullun, yana sauƙaƙa rayuwarmu da aminci. Fasahohin zamani da masana'antu daban-daban ana iya amfani dasu, ƙirƙirar adadin batutuwa marasa iyaka don takardun kimiyya. Sun fi tauri don sabis na rubutu mai rahusa kuma sun cancanci kulawa da ƙwararrun masana. Mun sami fitattun fasahohi uku waɗanda suka cancanci a yi la'akari yayin samun digirin digirgir.

Tunani

Mutane da yawa suna tuna cewa kimanin shekaru uku da suka wuce, injiniya kuma ɗan kasuwa Elon Musk ya gaya wa duniya game da aikin "Neuralink". Ayan mahimman ayyukan wannan aikin shine haɓaka fasaha wanda zai iya ninka ƙarfin kwakwalwarmu. Kuma ya cancanci ambaton ɗayan mahimmin kwatance: watsawa ba tare da yankewa na dukkan siginar kwakwalwar ɗan adam zuwa kwamfutar ba kuma akasin haka. Baƙon abin da yake iya zama alama, irin wannan fasaha ta riga ta wanzu a duniyarmu.

Wata sabuwar hanyar "alakanta" kwamfuta tare da kwakwalwar wata halitta mai rai ta nuna kyakkyawan sakamako, kuma saboda wannan bayanin an buga shi a cikin fitowar mujallar kimiyya ta Science Advanced.

A zahiri, masana kimiyya sunyi nasarar canza sigina daga ƙwayoyin kwakwalwa zuwa guntun siliki na musamman. Ya yi kama da kwakwalwan da suke cikin wayoyinmu. Kamar koyaushe, ana samun sakamako na farko tare da gwaji akan ɓeraye.

Don haɗa kwakwalwar linzamin kwamfuta zuwa na’urar sarrafawa, ƙungiyar masana kimiyya sun yi amfani da wayoyi na musamman waɗanda suka ninka gashin mutum ninki 15! Tunda duk wayoyin an “saita” zurfin su, sun iya amsa aikin 1 ko 2 neurons. Chiparfin silin ɗin, bi da bi, ya kama siginonin lantarki da aka watsa kuma ya ƙarfafa su, ya mai da su zuwa saitin bayanan da suka dace.

A cikin ayyukansu, masana kimiyya sun ba da tabbacin cewa sun sami damar kama dukkan ƙwayoyin ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwaƙwalwar linzamin kwamfuta saboda abubuwan kara ƙarfi na musamman da aka ɗora a kan guntu suna da matukar damuwa. Tabbas, masu binciken basu manta da ambaton cewa an kirkiro irin wannan fasahar a da ba. Bambancin shine duk wayan wutan lantarki dolene a hadasu da wani na'uran kara karfi. Don dalilai masu ma'ana, ya rikita aikin duka sosai (na'urar ta zama mai girman gaske).

Wani fasali mai ban sha'awa anan shine cewa berayen gwaji suna buƙatar wayoyi ɗari kawai, amma mutane zasu buƙaci kusan wayoyi dubu ɗari.

Babu wanda ya ambaci ainihin ranar, bayan haka ana iya amfani da fasaha a aikace. Amma a nan gaba, za a yi amfani da wannan fasaha don magance cutar makanta, nakasa, ko ma rashin jin magana. Hakanan yana yiwuwa fasahar zata iya dawo da jijiyoyin da suka lalace. Wannan binciken yana da babbar dama kuma tabbas ya cancanci ƙarin bincike.

Ilimin Artificial da motsin rai

Ci gaban ilimin kere kere a karni na ashirin da tara yana motsawa cikin hanzari don hassada. Daya daga cikin manyan nasarorinta shine ikon fahimtar motsin zuciyar ɗan adam. A cikin rahotonta na ci gaban AI na shekara-shekara, AI Yanzu, wata cibiyar bincike mai zurfafa bincike game da tasirin zamantakewar AI, ta yi kira da a haramta AI a wasu halaye. Masana suna jayayya cewa bai kamata a yi amfani da ƙwarewar sanin ƙwarewar AI ba a cikin yanke shawara da ya shafi rayuwar mutane da zamantakewar su gaba ɗaya. Me yasa, to, zai sa ikon mutummutumi ya iya rarrabe motsin rai zai iya canza rayuwar ɗan adam?

Algorithms na hangen nesa na kwamfuta, wanda zai iya ƙayyade wasu motsin zuciyarmu, ya wanzu a doron duniyar aƙalla shekaru biyu. Fasahar da aka bayar ta dogara ne akan bayanin da aka karɓa sakamakon ilmantarwa na inji - algorithms na musamman waɗanda ke aiwatar da bayanai don yanke shawara mafi kyau.

Duk da irin nasarorin da ke tattare da fasahar zamani, fasahar haifuwa da wannan fasaha ta mutumtaka har yanzu kalubale ce. Kwararru daga kamfanin Microsoft sun ce fahimtar halayen mutane tare da kwamfutoci na da damar kirkirar wasu aikace-aikace na zamani. Har yanzu, saboda matsaloli a ƙayyade su, AI ta daɗe tana nuna sakamako mara kyau.

Koyaya, sabon bincike ya nuna cewa fasahar zamani ta riga ta taimaka wa hukumomin ɗaukar ma'aikata don kimanta kwazon aikin ma'aikaci na gaba a matakin tattaunawar. Don haka, nazarin bidiyo na hirarraki da aka gudanar tare da taimakon sabbin fasahohi ya riga ya gudana, yana bawa manajoji damar samun kyakkyawan yanayin halin motsin rai na ma'aikatansu.

Daga karshe, dole ne masu kirkirar kere-kere da kuma al'umma gaba daya su sanya ido sosai kan yadda ake gabatar da bayanai daga tsarin ilimin kere kere a cikin hanyoyin yanke shawara. A takaice dai, kafin tsarin mai wayo ya koyi gane motsin rai daidai, masana kimiyya zasu fara aiki tuƙuru don ƙirƙirar ƙa'idodin ɗabi'a don ƙirar fasaha.

Kwayoyin halitta

Karuwar saurin fasaha da kwayar halitta, hade da kirkirar manyan kwamfyutoci, sassan jiki masu ci gaba, da gabobi na wucin gadi, yana samar da hanyar haduwar mutum da inji. Mai yiwuwa ne ni da ku za mu shaida fitowar zamanin cyberpunk.

Na'urorin, da aka taɓa sawa a jiki, yanzu an dasa su a jiki, wanda ke haifar da wani aji na ainihin cyborgs wanda ke nuna kewayon ƙwarewar da ta fi ta talakawa. Wasu cyborgs suna iya ganin launi lokacin da suka ji sauti, wasu kuma wadanda suke da ikon gano maganadisun maganadisu, wasu kuma wadanda suka dasa kwamfutoci don sarrafa yanayin zuciyarsu, da kuma wadanda suke amfani da tunaninsu wajen sadarwa da kwamfutoci ko sarrafa makamai masu mutun-mutumi. Duk abin da kawai ka karanta ba labarin almara ba ne. Duk abubuwan da aka bayyana suna faruwa a yanzu kuma zasu ci gaba da canzawa a nan gaba.

Koyaya, binciken juyin juya hali aikin masana kimiyya ne na Isra'ila, wanda aka buga shi a cikin mujallar Computational Intelligence da Neuroscience. A ciki, masu bincike suna magana game da ƙirƙirar abin da zai ba mutane damar haddace ƙarin bayani da yawa. A cewar masana kimiyya, ƙwaƙwalwar ajiyar ɗan adam ba ta da ƙarfi kuma ba za a iya dogaro da ita ba, musamman a wannan zamanin na yalwar bayanai. Kamar yadda ake tsammani, yanzu akwai adadi mai yawa na na'urorin tallafi daban-daban, amma suna aiki kai tsaye, kuma mutane dole suyi ƙoƙari su tuna da yawan bayanai.

A cikin aikin su, ƙungiyar kwararrun sun ba da labari game da ƙirƙirar samfurin aiki na 4 KB na Saukakken RAM (RAM), bayanan da za a iya rikodin su ko karanta su ta ƙarfin tunani. Ya kamata a sani cewa wannan shine farkon aikin kawo sauyi na gaske irinsa saboda RAM samfuri ne na ƙarin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiyar ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya wacce baya buƙatar sanyawa a cikin kwakwalwa. Ya isa haɗa shi zuwa wuyanka ta hanyar da ba ta mamayewa.

Kuma kodayake ƙarfin RAM a halin yanzu 4 KB ne kawai, masana kimiyya sun iya fahimtar ainihin tsarin ƙirƙirar waɗannan na'urori. A yayin aiki, masana sun kirkiro wata na’ura wacce za ta iya fahimtar aikin lantarki na kwakwalwa (EEG), da nadar bayanai a kan wata alama ta musamman ta RFID, karanta bayanan, da nuna su.

Sakamakon haka, ban da ƙara yawan ƙwaƙwalwar, a nan gaba RAM za ta iya inganta rayuwar mutanen da ke fama da cututtukan da ke haifar da cututtukan da ke haifar da cututtukan da ke haifar da cututtukan da suka shafi ƙwaƙwalwa kuma za ta iya rikodin tunanin wasu mutane, sannan za a iya karantawa. Za ku yarda cewa wannan yana buɗe ƙofofi zuwa haƙiƙanin gaskiya daban kuma yana sanya haɗin mutum da mashin ƙasa da haɗari kamar yau.

Yankunan AI, kere-kere, koyon inji, da kuma kwayar halitta suna ba da dama da dama ga samari masana kimiyya da suke son canza rayuwarmu da kyau. Amfani da abubuwan da aka gano na yau zai iya taimaka wa masu bincike wajen tattara sabbin samfura tare da samun sakamako mai ban mamaki.

Game da marubucin 

Imran Uddin

Imran Uddin ƙwararren mai rubutun ra'ayin yanar gizo ne daga Indiya da kan All Tech Buzz, yana rubutu game da Blogging, Yadda ake tukwici, Samun kuɗi akan layi, da dai sauransu.


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