February 1, 2023

Development of Modern Animation

Animation in the modern world

To date, animation as part of the screen culture and the culture of cinema has become widespread and developed. Market needs, expressed in the request of the audience and a high level of attention to this type of video content, create a solid foundation for the further development of the sphere in many directions. Also, as experts note, technological innovations and development in the field of equipment used to create animation only enhance the relevance of this field of activity.

According to researchers in the field, the animation is accepted as a separate, unique kind of audiovisual creativity, which differs not only in technical features and ways of creating creative products but also in expressive and artistic means [1]. In this range of characteristics, experts trace a big difference between animation and various types of cinematography.

The high intensity of changes in the technical and cultural vector contributes to the development of the field of animation, in connection with which the researchers reveal an expansion of the range of forms in this direction. At the same time, as experts note, this feature is associated to a greater extent not with digital technologies but with the expansion of the areas of their use and application. Researchers also note a trend in which stop-motion technologies are used with increasing development in cinema and theater.

The specifics of modern animation and the phenomenon of stop-motion animation

According to works in this area, the effect of globalization actively contributes to the development of stop-motion animation, which also forms new creative possibilities and areas of application and development [2]. Leading researchers in this field describes the phenomenon of stop-motion animation as going beyond the direction of art, as well as a combination of social and cultural phenomena and a technical, scientific experiment in a creative environment.

The potential of animation is growing every year and goes beyond the cinema and its parts. The area takes on an interdisciplinary character while combining a rich toolkit and many cultural aspects. An important part of this development is the social scope and cultural integration.

Technology in Animation Development

In modern approaches and works in the field of studying animation, there are some discrepancies in the definition of the universal concept of animation, as well as specific techniques and tools. However, the author of the article notes that all interpretations and definitions agree that the phenomenon of “motion illusion” is the main one in the development and description of animation as a director of professional activity.

Also, a popular interpretation of animation and its features is the following concept: animation is the creation of the illusion of object movement by shooting in the frame-by-frame format, and any necessary materials and technical elements are used to achieve the result.

Moreover, in various works, researchers of the subject area are trying to more accurately formulate the definition of animation in order to reflect the essence, specifics, and technology of this area of creative and technical activity in the most detailed way [3]. Thus, in many sources, the animation is understood as a certain type of art, the basis of which is a number of technically created images that are formed using drawing or a special compilation of three-dimensional puppet images. At the same time, the researchers note that an important feature is the frame-by-frame recording of the shooting, as well as the format of images that come to life on the screen. The technical side of animation in its classic form is a projection of movement at a speed of 24 frames per second, which achieves the visual effect of movement and animation of images and on-screen characters.

Many works in this area trace the parallels of animation as a cultural activity with ancient rock paintings. Experts associate these cultural phenomena with the desire of humanity to convey dynamics and action in the artistic creation of images. Also, researchers find confirmation of this idea throughout the cultural history of mankind as a whole.

Some researchers associate the development of animation as a direction of activity with the cognitive revolution, which reflects the period of the formation of figurative abstract thinking of a person, which also influenced the desire to display the dynamics of the surrounding world in cultural products.

During the development of cinema, animation appeared as a tool of visual creative direction, closely associated with the creation of a visual basis and dynamics in cinematic scenes. In its further development, the animation begins to be perceived by experts and society as a whole as a larger-scale phenomenon than a cinema tool. The region begins to form its own laws to create a different reality that can be differentiated from classical cinematographic products.

Definition of stop-motion animation

To date, animation has evolved from being part of a film toolkit to a new form of audiovisual art. At this stage, stop-motion animation gets its own vector of development as an independent director.

The main description of stop-motion animation, according to a large number of sources, is frame-by-frame animation, which is shot sequentially, and the main objects of this shooting are physical forms and characters consisting of physical materials [4]. The peculiarity of the choice of material lies in the possibility of influencing the material by an animation specialist.

Animation Directions

According to numerous studies on the theoretical and practical aspects of the use of animation, it can be divided into three main areas.

The fundamental and very first direction is the classic hand-drawn animation. Technically, this direction is characterized by specificity, within which each new frame is a separate picture [2]. This direction was especially popular in the work of multipliers of the twentieth century. The technical complexity of this direction was based on the fact that all the animation was created by hand and then transferred to transparent sheets, followed by the process of applying paint and creating frames.

As the second direction, researchers single out computer animation. Recently, this direction has been the most developing in completely different areas, and computer animation also occupies a dominant position in the market [5]. Broad technical capabilities determine the variety of methods, techniques, and tools used in the creation of computer animation products. In turn, computer animation is divided into two fundamental areas: 2D animation and 3D animation. The first type is characterized by the creation of a two-dimensional image. The depth and specificity of volumes close to the real perception of objects are reflected in 3D animation.

The third direction, which is called “stop-motion animation,” is characterized by experimental methods and tools. A feature of the direction is that the animator uses a certain trajectory of movement, which is recreated frame by frame.


  • “The fundamentals of animation” by P. Wells, 2006
  • “The technique of film animation” by J. Halas, R. Manvell, 1970
  • “Artist-directed dynamics for 2D animation” by Y. Bai, D. M. Kaufman, C. K. Liu, J. Popović, 2016
  • “Stop motion animation” by A. Thomas, N. Tufano, 2010
  • “Image-based motion blur for stop motion animation” by G. J. Brostow, I. Essa, 2001


Riabokon Taras

Video design expert

Founder of the 2D animation project “FX MONSTER”

About the author 

Kyrie Mattos

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